The Azimuth Project
Energy storage (Rev #20)



This page lists energy storage methods, with links to more details on some.

Energy storage methods



  • Starch
  • Glycogen



  • Capacitor
  • Supercapacitor
  • Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES)



  • Ice storage
  • Molten salt
  • Cryogenic liquid air or nitrogen
  • Seasonal thermal store
  • Solar pond
  • Hot bricks
  • Steam accumulator
  • Fireless locomotive
  • Eutectic system

For details see more on the Azimuth page on Thermal Energy Storage.


Energy storage is used for two main purposes within distribution systems: to allow low-cost/low-carbon energy to be saved when it is available and used later; and to cater for periods of peak demand. If demand can be adjusted to match capacity this can have an effect much the same as adding storage.

In order to handle peaks that exceed available capacity there is little option but to cut off power from a section of users. If prior arrangements can be made to allow particular uses to be shut down at the time of peak requirements, however, this will reduce power cuts and brownouts.

  • Over-production and energy dumping?

The output from large and efficient plant mostly cannot be adjusted quickly. The proportion of low cost baseline energy is thus limited by the minimum demand from the system. If, however, the energy from efficient plants can be dumped at times of minimum demand it can replace other forms of energy for the rest of the time and overall be more efficient.


  • Progress in electrical energy storage system: A critical review by Haisheng Chen, Thang Ngoc Cong, Wei Yang, Chunqing Tan, Yongliang Li, Yulong Ding, 2009. Progress in Natural Science (2009), Volume: 19, Issue: 3, Publisher: National Natural Science Foundation of China and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Pages: 291-312, ISSN: 10020071, DOI: 10.1016/j.pnsc.2008.07.014


Electrical energy storage technologies for stationary applications are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, battery, flow battery, fuel cell, solar fuel, superconducting magnetic energy storage, flywheel, capacitor/supercapacitor, and thermal energy storage. Comparison is made among these technologies in terms of technical characteristics, applications and deployment status.

category: energy