The Azimuth Project
Rayleigh-Bénard convection (Rev #1)



On Wikipedia it is defined as:

Rayleigh–Bénard convection is a type of natural convection, occurring in a plane of fluid heated from below, in which the fluid develops a regular pattern of convection cells known as Bénard cells. Rayleigh–Bénard convection is one of the most commonly studied convection phenomena because of its analytical and experimental accessibility.[1] The convection patterns are the most carefully examined example of self-organizing nonlinear systems.

Buoyancy is responsible for the appearance of convection cells. The initial movement is the upwelling of warmer liquid from the heated bottom layer. This upwelling spontaneously organizes into a regular pattern of cells.