Large eddy simulations (LES) are numerical approximations to the Navier-Stokes equations for flows that exhibit turbulence, where only length scales above a certain threshold are resolved, in contrast to direct numerical simulations. LES can nevertheless be used to simulate turbulent flow structures and instantaneous flow characteristics that the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations cannot resolve.
The basic idea of LES is the replacement of the flow vector field $u(t,x)$ or other fields that one is interested in, with a field that is spatially smeared. Smearing means the convolution with a test function $G(x, x')$ of localized support, like Gaussians or other cutoff fuctions. The smeared field is usually denoted with a bar:
This convolution product is commonly denoted symbolically
The Fourier transform turns the convolution product into a normal product:
The “Filter” is a mechanism that filters resp. suppresses high frequency/small scale phenomena, for example by replacing the exact solution $u$ by a function $\bar u$ that is convoluted with an appropriate Filter function $G$, $\bar = G \star u$. We will list some properties that the filter operation should have. These properties will help in the formulation and manipulation of the filtered Navier-Stokes equations.
Conservation of constants: $\bar a = a$ for all constants $a$. If the filter operation is a convolution, the necessary and sufficient condition is
Linearity: $\overline{u + v} = \bar u + \bar v$ for all functions $u, v$. If the filter operation is a convolution, then this property is trivially satisfied.
Commutation with derivation.
If the filter function $G$ is the Green’s function of a linear differential operator $F$, so that
then the filter is called a differential filter.
The closure problem of LES is the problem of how to model the processes at short length scales. LES depends on a good sub grid scale (SGS) model.
The near wall model (NWM) is a special aspect of the closure problem:
Large eddy simulation, Wikipedia
Berselli, Iliescu, Layton: Mathematics of large eddy simulation of turbulent flows. (Springer 2006, ZMATH)
Pierre Sagaut: Large eddy simulation for incompressible flows. (Springer 2006, ZMATH)
Eric Garnier, Nikolaus Adams, Pierre Sagaut: Large eddy simulation for compressible flows (ZMATH)
The following book is a guided tour to the specialized literature:
Recently there has been research about the use of wavelets as test- or smearing functions: